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What is meditation?
MeditationMeditation is state of concentrated attention on the object of thought or awareness.It involves turning the attention inward to the mind itself. Meditation is often recognized as a component of Eastern religions, where it has been practiced for over 5,000 years.
It has also become mainstream in Western culture. It encompasses any of a wide variety of spiritual practices which emphasize mental activity or quiescence. Many practice meditation in order to achieve peace, while others practice certain physical yogasana in order to become healthier. The basic idea generally associated with why people meditate is that during our day we are constantly subjected to sensory input and our minds are always active in the process of thinking. We read the books, study principles, write reports, engage in conversation, solve problems, computer work etc etc. Typically, as we do these normal activities we engage in a constant mental commentary, sort of an inner "The Drama of Me." Usually people aren't fully aware of all the mental thought activity that we are constantly engaged in.
Meditation allows all this activity to settle down, and often results in the mind becoming more peaceful, calm and focused. In essence, meditation allows the awareness to become 'rejuvenated'. It usually involves concentrating on an object, such as a flower, a candle, a sound or word, or the breath. Over time, the number of random thoughts occurring diminishes. More importantly, your attachment to these thoughts, and your identification with them, progressively become less.
What are the different meditation techniques?
Meditation involves concentrating on something to take our attention beyond the random thought activity that is usually going on in our heads. This can involve a solid object or picture, a mantra, breath, or guided visualization. Typical objects employed include a candle flame or a flower. Mantras are sounds which have a flowing, meditative quality and may be repeated out loud or inwardly. The breath is also a common focal point. Finally, guided visualization is also considered by some to be a form of meditation. A guided visualization can help to bring one into a meditative state; also, visualization may be used once a meditative state has been reached to produce various results.
What are the abc's of meditation?
There are a few recommended guidelines for meditation:

It should be done every day, preferably at the morning and evening hours.
It should preferably be done before a meal or after four hours of meal.
It should preferably be done before a meal or after four hours of meal.
It should be a quiet place and Good ventilated room.
One should sit with the spine straight and vertical (a chair is ok to use).